Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSAIDs have anti-inflammatory (reduce inflammation), analgesic (relieve pain) and antipyretic (lower temperature) effects. Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation. Most NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, although a few are available that mainly inhibit COX-2. The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are mainly due to inhibition of COX-2, and their unwanted side effects are largely due to inhibition of COX-1.

SOURCES: Byron Cryer, MD, spokesman, American Gastroenterological Association; associate professor of medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Nieca Goldberg, MD, spokeswoman for the American Heart Association; chief of women's cardiac care, Lennox Hill Hospital, New York; author, Women Are Not Small Men: Lifesaving Strategies For Preventing And Healing Heart Disease In Women . John Klippel, MD, president and CEO, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. Scott Zashin, clinical assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; author of Arthritis Without Pain . American College of Rheumatology web site. Arthritis Foundation web site. American Heart Association web site. American College of Gastroenterology web site. American Gastroenterological Association web site. American Academy of Family Physicians web site. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology web site.

Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high quality data ). Benzydamine did not. Three drug and formulation combinations had NNTs for clinical success below 4. For diclofenac, the Emulgel® formulation had the lowest NNT of (95% CI to ) in two studies using at least 50% pain intensity reduction as the outcome . Diclofenac plasters other than Flector® also had a low NNT of ( to ) based on good or excellent responses in some studies. Ketoprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ), from five studies in the 1980s, some with less well defined outcomes. Ibuprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ) from two studies with outcomes of marked improvement or complete remission. All other drug and formulation combinations had NNT values above 4, indicating lesser efficacy .

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02278120
  Show 204 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators Novartis Pharmaceuticals Investigators Study Director: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Novartis Pharmaceuticals   More Information
Responsible Party: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Identifier: NCT02278120     History of Changes Other Study ID Numbers: CLEE011E2301
First Submitted: October 22, 2014 First Posted: October 29, 2014 Last Update Posted: July 11, 2017 Last Verified: July 2017 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: Undecided Plan Description: Novartis is committed to sharing with qualified external researchers, access to patient-level data and supporting clinical documents from eligible studies. These requests are reviewed and approved by an independent review panel on the basis of scientific merit. All data provided is anonymized to respect the privacy of patients who have participated in the trial in line with applicable laws and regulations.

Studies have shown that people who take anti-inflammatory painkillers have a small but significant increase in the risk of developing a heart attack  or stroke . Although it can occur in anybody, the risk is mainly in people already known to have cardiovascular problems such as angina or peripheral arterial disease , and in the elderly. Perhaps the highest risk is in people who have previously had a heart attack. For example, one research study looked at people who had previously had a heart attack. The results showed a marked increase in the rate of a second heart attack in people who were taking an anti-inflammatory compared to those who were not.

Ibuprofen which is also known as : Advil, Advil Childrens, Advil Junior Strength, Advil Liquigel, Advil Migraine, Advil Pediatric, Childrens Ibuprofen Berry, Genpril, IBU, Midol IB, Midol Maximum Strength Cramp Formula, Dolgesic, Motrin Childrens, Motrin IB, Motrin Infant Drops, Motrin Junior Strength, Motrin Migraine Pain, Nuprin, Migraine Liqui-gels, Ibu-Tab 200, Cap-Profen, Tab-Profen, Profen, Ibuprohm, Children’s Elixsure, IB Pro, Vicoprofen, Combunox, A-G Profen, Actiprofen, Addaprin, Advil Infants Concentrated Drops, Caldolor, Haltran, Q-Profen, Ibifon 600, Ibren, Menadol, Midol Cramps & Bodyaches, Rufen, Saleto-200, Samson, Ultraprin, Uni-Pro, Wal-Profen.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor. Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02278120
  Show 204 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators Novartis Pharmaceuticals Investigators Study Director: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Novartis Pharmaceuticals   More Information
Responsible Party: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Identifier: NCT02278120     History of Changes Other Study ID Numbers: CLEE011E2301
First Submitted: October 22, 2014 First Posted: October 29, 2014 Last Update Posted: July 11, 2017 Last Verified: July 2017 Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement: Plan to Share IPD: Undecided Plan Description: Novartis is committed to sharing with qualified external researchers, access to patient-level data and supporting clinical documents from eligible studies. These requests are reviewed and approved by an independent review panel on the basis of scientific merit. All data provided is anonymized to respect the privacy of patients who have participated in the trial in line with applicable laws and regulations.

Media:

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

http://buy-steroids.org