In prokaryotes translation generally occurs at the point of transcription (co-transcriptionally), often using a messenger RNA that is still in the process of being created. In eukaryotes translation can occur in a variety of regions of the cell depending on where the protein being written is supposed to be. Major locations are the cytoplasm for soluble cytoplasmic proteins and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum for proteins that are for export from the cell or insertion into a cell membrane . Proteins that are supposed to be expressed at the endoplasmic reticulum are recognised part-way through the translation process. This is governed by the signal recognition particle —a protein that binds to the ribosome and directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum when it finds a signal peptide on the growing (nascent) amino acid chain.  Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text
Targeted gene deletions, mutagenesis screens and a genome-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen have identified approximately 300 gene inactivations that cause fat reduction and approximately 100 gene inactivations that cause fat accumulation without significant effects on growth and viability ( Ashrafi et al., 2003 ; Jia et al., 2004 ; Kniazeva et al., 2004 ; Kniazeva et al., 2003 ; Ludewig et al., 2004 ; Mak et al., 2006 ; McKay et al., 2003 ; Mukhopadhyay et al., 2005 ; Taubert et al., 2006 ; Van Gilst et al., 2005 ; Vellai et al., 2003 ; Watts and Browse, 2002 ; Yang et al., 2006 ). Another approximately 250 gene inactivations cause dramatic fat reductions concomitant with defects ranging from sterility to growth arrest and lethality. Because of these pleiotropies, it is difficult to assign specific fat regulatory functions to such genes although they include some well-known components of metabolism.